My research group studies complex molecular systems by using ultrafast multi-dimensional infrared and non-linear UV/Vis methods. The properties of systems, such as water in nanoscopic environments, room temperature ionic liquids, heterogeneous catalysts, liquid crystals, or phospholipid membranes depend on molecular level dynamics and intermolecular interactions. Our ultrafast measurements provide direct observables for understanding the relationships among dynamics, structure, and intermolecular interactions.
Bulk properties are frequently a very poor guide to understanding the molecular level details that determine the nature of a chemical process and its dynamics. Because molecules are small, molecular motions are inherently very fast. Recent advances in methodology developed in our labs make it possible for us to observe important processes as they occur. These measurements act like stop-action photography. To focus on a particular aspect of a time evolving system, we employ sequences of ultrashort pulses of light as the basis for non-linear methods such as ultrafast infrared two dimensional vibrational echoes, optical Kerr effect methods, and ultrafast IR transient absorption experiments.
We are using ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy and other multi-dimensional IR methods, which we have pioneered, to study dynamics of molecular complexes, water confined on nm lengths scales with a variety of topologies, heterogeneous catalysts bound to surfaces, organic ionic liquids, and membranes. We can probe the structural transformations of these systems. The methods are somewhat akin to multidimensional NMR, but they probe molecular structural evolution in real time on the relevant fast time scales. We are obtaining direct information on how nanoscopic confinement of water changes its properties, a topic of great importance in chemistry, biology, geology, and materials. For the first time, we are observing the motions of molecular heterogeneous catalysts bound to surfaces. In biological membranes, we are using the vibrational echo methods to study dynamics and the relationship among dynamics, structure, and function. We are also developing and applying theory to these problems frequently in collaboration with top theoreticians.
We are studying dynamics in complex liquids, in particular organic ionic liquids, liquid crystals, supercooled liquids, as well as in influence of small quantities of water on liquid dynamics. Using ultrafast optical heterodyne detected optical Kerr effect methods, we can follow processes from tens of femtoseconds to ten microseconds. Our ability to look over such a wide range of time scales is unprecedented. The change in molecular dynamics when a system undergoes a phase change is of fundamental and practical importance. We are developing detailed theory as the companion to the experiments.
We are studying photo-induced proton transfer in nanoscopic water environments such as polyelectrolyte fuel cell membranes, using ultrafast UV/Vis fluorescence and multidimensional IR measurements to understand the proton transfer and other processes and how they are influenced by nanoscopic confinement. We want to understand the role of the solvent and the systems topology on proton transfer dynamics.
1) “Ultrafast Structural Dynamics Inside Planer Phospholipid Multibilayer Model Cell Membranes Measured with 2D IR Spectroscopy,” O. Kel, A. Tamimi, M.C. Thielges, and M.D. Fayer, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 135, 11063-11074 (2013).
2) “The Influence of Lithium Cations on Dynamics and Structure of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids,” C. Lawler and M.D. Fayer, J. Phys. Chem. B, 117, 9768-9774 (2013).
6) “Water in a Crowd,” M.D. Fayer, Physiology, 26, 381-392 (2011).
7) “Structural Dynamics of a Catalytic Monolayer Probed by Ultrafast 2D IR Vibrational Echoes,” D.E. Rosenfeld, Z. Gengeliczki, B.J. Smith, T.D.P. Stack, and M.D. Fayer, Science, 334, 634-639 (2011).
8) “Dynamics of Liquids, Molecules, and Proteins Measured with Ultrafast 2D IR Vibrational Echo Chemical Exchange Spectroscopy,” M.D. Fayer, Ann. Rev. P. Chem., 60, 21-38 (2009).